Levels of splenic IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-10, and TGF-β in C57BL/6 mice co-infected with 100 or 200 S. japonicum cercariae and 1 × 106(A) or 1 × 105(B) P.berghei pRBCs after eight weeks. Intensities of S. japonicum cercariae in each panel are indicated as co-infection-200c and co-infection-100c, respectively. Mice infected with only P. berghei are indicated as P. berghei-mono. Splenocytes were isolated from mice on days 1, 3, 5, 8 post-P. berghei infection and cultured to measure indicated cytokine levels using ELISA. Bars represent mean values ± SD. Significant differences in cytokine levels over time and between indicated groups were determined by one-way ANOVA with *indicating P < 0.05 and #indicating P < 0.01. n = 5-6 mice per group. Results are representative of three independent experiments.