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Table 2 Associations between measures of urbanicity and parasite prevalence stratified by study site

From: Associations between urbanicity and malaria at local scales in Uganda

Urbanicity metric Exposure categories Walukuba Kihihi Nagongera
PPa (total blood smears) ORb (95 % CI) P PP (total blood smears) ORb (95 % CI) P PP (total blood smears) ORb (95 % CI) P
Household densityc ≤80 7.9 % (406) 0.83 (0.33–2.11) 0.70 8.4 % (3151) 0.15 (0.07–0.34) <0.001 22.5 % (3231) N/A  
>80 5.8 % (2207) 1.3 % (225) None
NDVId >0.45 7.3 % (854) 0.67 (0.33–1.34) 0.26 8.3 % (2563) 0.76 (0.34–1.67) 0.49 23.4 % (2247) 0.87 (0.63–1.20) 0.40
≤0.45 5.5 % (1759) 6.5 % (813) 20.4 (984)
Night-time lights ≤3 6.8 % (1799) 0.72 (0.34–1.51) 0.38 7.9 % (3376) N/A   22.5 % (3231) N/A  
>3 4.6 % (814) None None
Land cover ≤20 % 6.8 % (1496) 0.84 (0.41–1.71) 0.63 Not measured    Not measured   
>20 % 5.2 % (1117)
Composite scoree Low 7.3 % (1808) 0.44 (0.20–0.97) 0.04 8.4 % (3151) 0.15 (0.07–0.34) <0.001 22.5 % (3231) N/A  
High 3.4 % (805) 1.3 % (225) None
  1. aParasite prevalence: proportion of blood smears positive for asexual parasites
  2. bOdds ratio adjusted for age at the time of the blood smear and repeated measures in the same household
  3. cNumber of households within 100 m radius from participating household
  4. dNormalized Difference Vegetation Index
  5. e1 point for each individual urbanicity metric: Walukuba (low = 0–2, high = 3–4), Kihihi and Nagongera (low = 0–1, high = 2)