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Table 1 Demographics and housing characteristics for enrolled children with recent fever presenting to outpatient department, (n = 248)

From: The effect of holes in long-lasting insecticidal nets on malaria in Malawi: results from a case–control study

Variable Total (n= 248) Control children (n = 151) Case children (n=97) p value
Assessed by parental report
  N (%) N (%) N (%)  
 Age categories, months
  6–12 47 (19.0) 35 (23.2) 12 (12.4)  
  13–59 201 (81.1) 116 (76.8) 85 (87.6) 0.03*
 Sex
  Male 123 (49.6) 74 (49.0) 49 (50.5)  
  Female 125 (50.4) 77 (51.0) 48 (49.5) 0.82
 Education of caregiver
  None 25 (10.1) 10 (6.7) 15 (15.5)  
  Primary 181 (73.3) 110 (73.3) 71 (73.2)  
  Secondary and higher 41 (16.6) 30 (20.0) 11 (11.3) 0.03*
 Caregiver age (years), median (IQR) 26 (22, 31) 25 (22, 31) 28 (23, 32) 0.22
 Socio-economic status
  Lower 80% 196 (79.4) 117 (78.0) 79 (81.4)  
  Upper 20% 51 (20.7) 33 (22.0) 18 (18.6) 0.51
 Child sleeps on
  Mattress 50 (20.2) 36 (23.8) 14 (14.4)  
  Floor/mat 198 (79.8) 115 (76.2) 83 (85.6) 0.07
 Number of nets owned, median (IQR) 2 (1, 2) 2 (1, 2) 2 (1, 2) 0.30
 Number of nets hanging, median (IQR) 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 2) 0.49
 Household use of any mosquito repellant measuresa
  Yes 12 (4.8) 7 (4.6) 5 (5.2) 1.00
 Flooring type
  Non-cement 206 (83.4) 119 (79.3) 87 (89.7)  
  Cement 41 (16.6) 31 (20.7) 10 (10.3) 0.03*
Assessed at home visit
 Breeding sites within 20 metersb
  Yes 55 (22.2) 34 (22.5) 21 (21.7) 0.87
 House eaves
  All or some open 201 (81.1) 116 (76.8) 85 (87.6)  
  All closed 47 (19.0) 35 (23.2) 12 (12.4) 0.03*
 Windows
  No windows 66 (26.6) 40 (26.5) 26 (26.8)  
  Windows, not screened or some screened 178 (71.8) 109 (72.2) 69 (71.1)  
  Windows, all screened 4 (1.1) 2 (1.3) 2 (2.1) 0.92
 Presence of at least 2 windows on different walls
  Yes 71 (28.6) 49 (32.5) 22 (22.7) 0.10
 Number of nets hanging, median (IQR) 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 1) 0.44
 Roof typec
  Thatch/palm leaf 179 (72.8) 98 (65.3) 81 (84.4)  
  Non-thatch/palm leaf 67 (27.2) 52 (34.7) 15 (15.6) 0.001*
 Exterior wall materiald
  Natural materials 39 (15.7) 24 (15.9) 15 (15.5)  
  Cement or brick 209 (84.3) 127 (84.1) 82 (84.5) 0.93
  1. * p value < 0.05
  2. aMosquito repellant, mosquito coils, or spraying with insecticide
  3. bExamples of potential breeding sites include puddles, swamps, and open drains, among others
  4. cNon-thatch/palm leaf includes calamine/cement fiber, ceramic tiles, or corrugated galvanized iron sheets
  5. dNatural materials include cane, palm, trunks, or dirt walls. Cement or brick includes cement and burnt or unburnt brick walls