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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis of malaria

From: The effect of holes in long-lasting insecticidal nets on malaria in Malawi: results from a case–control study

Variable Univariable analysisa Multivariable analysisb
Unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) p value Adjusted OR 95% CI p value
pHI category
 Good (< 79 cm2) Reference    Reference   
 Damaged: (80–789 cm2) vs good 0.44 [0.20–0.95] 0.04* 0.48 [0.21–1.06] 0.07
 Too torn (> 790 cm2) vs good 0.44 [0.14–1.41] 0.17 0.46 [0.14–1.52] 0.20
Age categories, months
 6–12 Reference    Reference   
 13–59 2.14 [1.05–4.36] 0.04* 2.15 [1.02–4.53] 0.04*
Education of caregiver
 None Reference   
 Primary 0.43 [0.18–1.01] 0.05
 Secondary and higher 0.24 [0.09–0.70] 0.01*
Caregiver age 1.03 [0.99–1.07] 0.16 1.03 [0.99–1.07] 0.15
SES index
 Lower 80% Reference      
 Upper 20% 0.81 [0.43–1.53] 0.51
Child sleeps on
 Floor/mat Reference      
 Mattress 0.54 [0.27–1.06] 0.07
Potential breeding sites
 No Reference      
 Yes 0.95 [0.51–1.76] 0.87
House eaves
 All or some open Reference      
 All closed 0.47 [0.23–0.95] 0.04*
At least 2 windows on different walls
 No Reference      
 Yes 0.61 [0.34–1.10] 0.10
Number of nets hanging 0.89 [0.61–1.29] 0.52
Roof type
 Thatch/palm leaf Reference    Reference   
 Non-thatch/palm leaf 0.35 [0.18–0.67] 0.001* 0.34 (0.17-0.66) 0.002*
  1. * p value < 0.05
  2. aResults of odds ratios for sex, use of repellant, wall materials, and presence of screened windows are not included in the table because they were similar between cases and controls
  3. bAll variables in Table 1 were included in multivariable model building. The final multivariable model presented is the model with lowest AIC